Bumble Bee Hill Landscape Study

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Preface

Why do people love the land? I have been attempting to understand my attachment to a 15 acre plot of land in Marshfield, Massachusetts. When I mention this land to people their eyes light up and most start talking about how valuable it is. Yes it is valuable to me, but not for its financial value. There is much more to it for me. Location, topography, family, history, plants, animals, freedom, memories, and dreams for future are all pieces of my love for this property. This project is my effort to explain, especially to the up coming generation, why this land is an important resource and should be kept as intact as possible. While the mean spirited and mercenary can always put a negative spin on “land lust” I feel that the owners of this property have demonstrated good intentions and a true interest in improvement of the land for the betterment of their family and the society.

Location & topography Location, location, location. The idea of a place “to see and be seen” dates back thousands of years most likely before Pliny the Younger was writing to his pals in ancient Rome. While Bumble Bee Hill (BBH) is far from a splendid hillside villa it does have location qualities of note. The high point of BBH is 64.9 feet, a small hill, but it is the highest spot between it and the Atlantic approximately five miles away. Transportation options, while sometimes questioned, are an important aspect of the location. Early on Indians used the slight ridge, now known as Moraine Street or route 3A, as a trail. Green(s) Harbor now part of Marshfield is identified on early maps. In Colonial times Marshfield’s costal location, 15 miles north of Plymouth, and its three rivers made it accessible by boat. Later, trains looped through the town making it a tourist destination and connected it to Boston markets, thirty miles away. Route 3A, Moraine Street, was the main road to Cape Cod, twenty miles away, until route 3 was built in the 1960s. This highway now cuts through the northwest corner of the town, making roads into the main part of the town and the beaches congested during rush hours. Marshfield was described in a Boston Globe real-estate article as “a nice town, but you can’t get there.” A back way into the property from exit 11 off the highway provides a less congested and more rural path to BBH. Located in the southern part of Marshfield, BBH is near Duxbury. The rolling terrain of BBH provides for pleasant views and interesting landscaping possibilities.

Family and History. The fifteen acre parcel has been held by one family for approximately 200 hundred years. The family ancestors were among the first European settlers in Marshfield and are mentioned in many early histories. A family tree shows the family connection to the passengers on the Mayflower. (See appendix iii) The existing buildings on the property contain boxes of memorabilia dating back to before the Civil War. The family members who stayed on the land represent stereotypes of the New England way of thinking. The changes in the land and the land management practices reflect broader historic trends of the times.

The plants and animals, flora and fauna, on the property tell a long complicated story of their own. The current abundance of wild life is the planned result of its most recent owner’s environmental attitudes. During the 1800s few trees existed as crops and farm animals dominated. Stone walls were built. The 1600s were a time of battling the wild as documented in town reports of wolf traps and fencing projects. The pre-colonial 1500s were described by early explorers as a time when native Americans farmed the land in a sophisticated, but less invasive fashion.

Freedom in many forms is part of the story of Bumble Bee Hill. Freedom of thought is an important theme throughout the history of this cultural landscape. The European family ancestors and Indian inhabitant have been known for resistancing social constraints. Religious freedom, antislavery, and other social reform movements, sometimes at odds with the thinking of the local population, were promoted by residents of this property. The people of this property believed in improvement and conservation, not necessarily progress, a concept often at odds with the thinking of many profit seekers. Recreation, both as leisure and regeneration, is part of a freedom from the tyranny of time. Freedom from the constraints of nursing homes and hospitals is another role this land has provided. The people of this property have always had an understanding of the import of education in maintaining freedom. Many of the inhabitants were educators.

Memories. Family stories remembered in their elusive fashion are a major part of the land. Current generations have heard and are passing down many tall tails of this property, many with surprising validity. The tangibility of the land and its relics offers windows to the past, and doorways to the future.

Dreams for the future make the inevitable sufferings of the present tolerable. The dream process of planning for future improvements are intended to help the current generation, now grieving for the loss of their own youth marked by the death of their beloved ancestors.

Introduction

Bumble Bee Hill has a long history as a property with a strong spirit in conservation minded agricultural, education, and family and community connections. It is not a property of the elite or of those interested in high style or fashion. It is a vernacular landscape “that evolved over time through the use by the people whose activities or occupancy shaped the landscape. Through social or cultural attitudes of an individual, family or community, the landscape reflects the physical, biological, and cultural character of those every day lives.” (Birnbaum 1994) Figures 1 and 2 are photos of the house which show minimal change in the modest structure over the past 100 years.

This project is an introduction to some of the historic aspects of Bumble Bee Hill and the Baker Woods. It is for the education, entertainment, and enlightenment of the current property holders and future generations. The focus is on the landscape and how natural and cultural influences have resulted in changes over the years. A time line of selected events will provide an overview of activities influencing the changes. The land management practices of the 1800s and 1900s are fairly well documented in maps, agricultural census data, photos, and stories. This 200 year time period will dominate the project. In the spirit of the Historic American Landscape Survey (HALS) the property and exiting relics can be used as tangible reminders of the past. The project is intended to stimulate further investigations. See figure 3.

Property Description

Location: Bumble Bee Hill is located at 696 Moraine Street. Marshfield, Massachusetts

The property is a 15 acre lot in the southern portion of the town of Marshfield in the north east corner of Plymouth County. It is 5 miles from the ocean, 30 miles from Boston and 20 miles north of the Cape Cod Canal. The area is mainly a residential suburb of Boston, but the agricultural past is still evident in parts of the town. The property is less than a half a mile south of the commercial town center. The northern boundary is buffered by restricted wetlands and a new senior housing development. Route 3A is the western boundary, Single family housing developments abut to the south and east. Despite the rapid development in much of Marshfield the property is connected to open space and other agricultural areas. A sheep and lama farm, a golf course, cranberry bogs, strawberry fields, tree farms and stables are found within a two mile radius of the property.

Aerial photo of Marshfield (2001) showing location of BBH.

Figure 4 is a 2001 aerial photo showing the location of the property in relationship to the beach, highways, open space, and rivers.

The topography of the site is varied, typical of a moraine. The house and barn are set on the top of a sandy hill, which is cut off to the west for the state highway. The land drops off 30 feet into a wetland with a brook to the west and then gradually rises to the base of a small esker, which juts up and to the north. Figure 5 is a composite map of the property with two foot contour intervals and vegetation regions.

Time line

Glacial events

78,000-10,000 BCE the land was shaped by the receding Laurentide ice sheet. The name Moraine Street reflects the fact that the area is an accumulation of boulders, stones, and other debris carried and deposited by a glacier. The north south orientation of the street follows the interlobate moraine formed by the colliding of two glacial deposits, known as the Cape Cod Lobe and the Buzzard Bay Lobe. (Marshfield Community History 1993) The evidence of the glacial origins of the land can be seen today on the property. The large boulders scattered randomly are glacial erratics. Hinckley soil formed by glacial deposits of sand and gravel is a major soil type on the property. A second type is Deerfield soil, which is a moderately well drained soil formed in sandy glacial outwash deposits. (Benjamin 2003) A distinct esker (A long, narrow ridge of coarse gravel deposited by a stream flowing in or under a decaying glacial ice sheet) can be observed at the northeast corner of the property. The house is on is a small drumlin. (Streamlined hill, largely of till, with blunt end pointing into direction from which ice moved.) It is hard to imagine how ice could move huge boulders or form hills and valleys without realizing that the glaciers were more than a mile deep in many places. Figure 6 is a drawing showing the Boston sky line with a fantasy glacier towering a mile above. It illustrates the magnitude of the ice sheet in the New England area and helps one understand how topography could be formed by ice. Figures 7, 8, 9, and 10 are photos of some of the glacial features easily observed on the property.

Native American Past

The Algonquin speaking, Wampanoag, also known as “eastern people”, Massasoit, Philip’s Indians, or Pokanoket, lived in the Marshfield area before the Pilgrims arrived in New England. They were an agricultural people who raised crops and fished in the summer along the coast and moved inland during the winter for hunting. These early residents managed the land for farming and hunting by controlled burns. Several early descriptions of New England compare it to European parklands, with well-spaced trees and an open under story well suited for riding though to find game. Shrubby dense edges provided wildlife cover and improved hunting. Drawings and paintings done by John White, a scientific illustrator traveling with Walter Raleigh’s expeditions in the 1500s, show a sophisticated form of agriculture existed in North America before the 1600s. Some feel that these beautiful descriptions were part of a public relations effort to entice English settlers to move to the new world.

In 1620 when the Pilgrims arrived many Indian settlements had been abandoned due to epidemics of various diseases. The Wampanoag population was about 12,000 in the early 1600s. When the Pilgrims arrived the mainland population was only about 2000 and many villages were empty. Friendly relation between the settlers and the few remaining Wampanoag are reported. Stories of Squanto (Tisquantum) describe how he helped the English learn to survive in the new environment.

Bumble Bee Hill is located along an elevated glacial formation identified as one of the original Indian Trails. (Beals 1993 & Russell 1980). Native American relics were found on the property in the early 1900s. (See figures 11-16)

Colonial Times

1637 The town of Duxbury, which originally included land that is now part of Marshfield and Pembroke, is incorporated on June 7, 1637. Figure 17 is a map dated 1638 showing Green(s) Harbor.

1640- Marshfield is established from the northern part of Duxbury and inhabitants of the latter petition for compensating land in the interior. The General Court grants their petition in 1645 and land is purchased from Wampanoag Sachem Ousamequin

1648 Arthur Howland, an ancestor, and name sake of the present Bumble Bee Hill property holders is, noted to have purchased property for twenty-one pounds sterling, part to be paid in money and part in corn and cattle.

1650 (Oct. 22) John Dingley purchases land on the south side of the South River in Marshfield from Richard Church.

1657 Town histories contain the following entry “Arthur Howland, a resident of Marshfield, was liberal in his views, and sympathized with the Quakers.” According to Goodwin, author of the Pilgrim Republic, "John Philips, the constable going to Arthur Howland's house in Marshfield to leave a summons, saw a non-resident Quaker preacher, Robert Tuchin, and arrested him. Howland interferred and ejected the constable from his house declaring, as the latter certified, that he would have ‘a sword or gun in the belly of him.’ Two sons of John Rogers (of the Mayflower) refused to aid the constable. When the official returned with a poss,, Tuchin had escaped. Howland was forthwith taken to Alden's house and tried before Collier, alden and Josiah winslow, who ordered him to give bons to the Gerneral Court; he refusing to furnish bail, they put him in charge of the Colony's Marshal, Lieutenant Nash, who lived near. He was eventually fined œ5 for resisting the officer. Soon after, he sent the court an indignant protest against Anti-Quaker measures, and was then arrested for contempt. The court decided that as his estate would not bear further fines, and he was too old and infirm to be whipped, he be released in acknowledgment of error, which was done.”

1670 Town records contain an entry referencing J. Dingley, the owner of the property before the Bakers. “The inhabitants have agreed that the town will pay for the killing of wolves 30s a wolf; also that J. Dingley, J. Snow, Jona. Winslow and W. Winslow have agreed to make a sufficient wolf trap, and to keep it sufficiently tended."

While no definite evidence of wolf traps remains on the property several unexplained features are possible remnants of traps. One is a pit near the spring in the center of the front forest. A second unexplained pit is located east of the brook. Another possible location of a trap is at southwest corner of the property where a man made depression is walled with stone. This also explains what seemed like crazy warning to watch out for the wolves made by older landowners. Coyotes are known to be in the area today.

Figures 18 and 19 are examples of wolf traps used in Europe during the 1500s. The early colonists would have known about such traps.

Figure 20 is a photo of the remains of the Dingley Family tomb, located at the northeast corner of the property.

The Nineteenth Century Deforestation

By 1800 the battle with the wilderness is won and farming is well established. Environmental historians such as William Cronon, John Hanson Mitchell, David R. Foster, and John F. O’Keefe see the destruction of the forests as part of a blatant disregard for the precious natural resources. Steven Stoll comments that, “Waste was democratic. Conserving land could be an expensive undertaking. Skimming allowed farmers to maintain yields with the smallest possible investment. It also turned the land into worthless dust.” He goes on to say, “There has never been an ecological wrecking ball to equal the plow. With plant cover removed, the rate of weathering is accelerated far beyond the rate of creation. In fact, the genesis of fine particles and organic matter into soils happens so slowly that the end product must be considered non-renewable.”

Robert M. Thorson’s theories on the appearance of stone walls in the mid 1800s attributes the stone walls to the abundance of stones which were the result of agricultural practices that caused stones to rise to the surface due to freeze thaw cycles intensified by open plowed land. .

Henry David Thoreau’s keen observations of the landscape are often referenced

This is not just an American issue as the Russian playwright Chekhov points out in Uncle Vanya: Scenes From Country Life in Four Acts written in the late 1800s. The character Astroff in the play laments “The forests are disappearing, the rivers are running dry, the game is exterminated, the climate is spoiled, and the earth becomes poorer and uglier every day... It is the consequence of the ignorance and unconsciousness of starving, shivering, sick humanity that, to save its children, instinctively snatches at everything that can warm it and still its hunger. So it destroys everything it can lay its hands on, without a thought for the morrow. And almost everything has gone, and nothing has been created to take its place.”

The 1838 map of Marshfield shows the extent of deforestation in Marshfield. George Baker’s land is identified by a red rectangle on figures 21 and 22. Figure 23 is a wood engraving by J. W. Wood from the book Massachusetts Towns an 1840 View showing Duxbury (Mattakeeset) stripped of trees). The absence of stone walls in this drawing is consistent with Thorson’s theory.

1800 George Baker (1789-1838) purchases the Moraine Street farm from the Dingleys. The exact date of this transaction needs investigation.

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George Martin Baker

1820 George Martin Baker, son of George Baker, is born in the easterly chamber in the house at 696 Moraine St.

1838 A map of Marshfield marks G Baker in the area that is now Bumble Bee Hill. The area is shown as clear of woodland.

Extensive renovations occurred in the early 1800s when Greek Revival architecture was popular. The west half of the “old house” has many Greek Revival details, while the west side is of an older style. Figure 25 is a photo of detail work on the front portico of the “old house” from a later period. This is one of many examples of the eclectic nature of the renovations done over the years. Future investigation of the buildings on the property should uncover interesting stories. This project is focused on the landscape.

Land Improvement Movement of the late 1800s

Concern over what was called “rural decay” developed in the second half of the nineteenth century. Hal S. Barron’s book Those Who Stayed Behind details this phenomenon, and the steps to correct the problem. New England agricultural reformers of the time encouraged the formation of organizations to “wake up the farmer to the importance of scientific agricultural knowledge in the cultivation of the land.” George Martin Baker was founder of the Marshfield Agricultural Society.

1850 Agricultural Census Records document information on the George M. Baker farm. The following information is available: the farm consisted of 26 acres of improved land, the cash value of the farm was 1,975 (dollars), ($)100 of farming implements, and machinery, Live Stock, valued at ($)130 included 1 horse, 1 Milch Cow, 1 Swine. Produce for the year included 8 bushels of Indian Corn, 75 bushels of Irish Potatoes, 5 dollars of orchard products, ($)10 market garden produce, 150 lbs of butter, 8 tons of hay. This record is available at NARA's Northeast Region (The National Archives and Records Administration). Figure 24 is a speculative drawing of the George Martin Farm based on the census data, physical evidence on the property and family stories.

1859 The Homestead Act encourages westward development by permitting citizens or prospective citizens 160 acres of public land.

1862 George Martin Baker issues a call for a meeting of residents of Marshfield and vicinity “to organize a society for the discussion of questions relating to agriculture.” Despite “Some ridicule and laughter,” a society of nineteen members organizes under the name of South Marshfield Farmers Club.

1865 The First Marshfield Fair takes place with the oversight of George Martin Baker, fair president. (office held for 25 years) About 200 attended and brought their farm products for exhibition.

1866 The second Fair attracts 9000 people. Figure 29 is a copy of a news clipping on the second fair, which was reportedly a great success.

1868 Marshfield Agricultural and Horticultural Society becomes incorporated to “promote agriculture, horticulture and home industries” George Martin Baker held the position of president for 25 years. Historian Lysander Richard describes the organization as “One of the best and most useful institutions to the farmers of Marshfield and vicinity…”(see figure 30 and Appendix iv for report written by George Martin Baker)

1871 Green Harbor Dike is authorized. Much controversy surrounded this event, in which George Martin Baker was very involved. Questions regarding the motivation of George Martin Baker have been raised, but a review of the period map indicates that his land was not directly affected by the dike. See figure 31.

1871 First train to Marshfield stops at Marshfield Hills, Center Marshfield, Green Harbor, and has seasonal stops at the Marshfield Fair Grounds. A series of maps show the train tracks less than a mile from the east boundary of GMB’s farm. The farm was 26 acres at that time, extending along what is now Rayfield Road. See figures 26 & 27.

The train marked a huge shift in agriculture. Profit driven farmers who moved west had improved transportation to bring their crops to eastern markets. The train to Marshfield improved the economy by bringing people to the town as tourists, not sending crops to market. An 1876 “Welcome to Historic Marshfield, tourist flyer” is part of the memorabilia saved by Pearson Stewart.

1876 Arthur Howland Baker, grandson of GMB and later owner of the property, is born is born to George Martin and Helena Loring.

1880 The Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association of the USA is formed when a group of Brown Swiss breeders organized themselves in Worcester, Massachusetts.

George Martin Baker was very proud of his cow, a Brown Swiss. See figure 28a. These cows are known for their high yield of fat and protein rich milk and their gentile temperament. The Agricultural Census of 1850 located at the NARA's Northeast Region (The National Archives and Records Administration) reported 150 pound of butter from GMB’s farm. (Linda Piette, culinary historian, identified the breed)

1885 Marshfield becomes a summer resort town. See figures 32, 33 and 34.

1910 The 90th birthday celebration of George Martin Baker is reported in the local newspaper. The article notes that he was born on the property in 1820, operated a general store, elected to the legislature from the district, was the postmaster, was a charter member of the Marshfield Lyceum, and the Marshfield farmers club. He helped form the Marshfield Fair Association and held the office of president for 20 years. He served 14 years on the state board of agriculture, was a select man and served on the school committee. He was noted to be “a strong antislavery agitator.” See appendix v.

1911 George Martin Baker dies in the easterly chamber of the house on Bumble Bee Hill. His daughters, Mary and Stella, remain on the family farm.

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Arthur Howland Baker, Jr.

Arthur Howland Baker Jr., great grandson of George Martin Baker is born in Marshfield.

1920 Despite efforts to improve rural life the economics of the times force many to urban areas for jobs to support their families. See figure 37.

1936 The family continues to hold farming as a noble profession and George Campbell Baker, the youngest son of AHB Sr., works on a farm in the summer of 1936. See figure 38.

1939 Last train to Marshfield.

1942 Arthur Howland Baker Senior, grandson of George Martin Baker, retires to the farm, and maintains the property in the spirit of a farm but releases the backfields to become pine forest. The woods are meticulously managed with every fallen branch neatly stacked in piles. Fruit trees are cared for, with regular spraying to ensure pest free fruit. Straight rows of trees are planted. Many children and grandchildren vacation at Bumble Bee Hill.

1947 Pictures are taken after a snow storm. A white picket is visible. See figure 44.

1953 Bumble Bee Hill is a special place for family gatherings. Visiting relatives expect to do maintenance projects while visiting and the house and out buildings are well maintained. See figure 45a.

Late 1900s The Environmental Movement

1961 Arthur H. Baker, Jr. (AHB Jr.) retires from the Air Force to Bumble Bee Hill with his wife and four school-aged children. The house is renovated for family use. The old kitchen, back sheds and outhouse are replaced by a modern addition with a kitchen, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, two working wood fire places, a family room and utility space for a modern heating system and laundry facilities. The outhouse is moved intact to the bottom of the hill at the edge of the front woods

1962 The Silent Spring by Rachel Carson is published. See figure 42.

1963-The spirit of the farm is maintained with fencing for horses added and recreational gardening a major past time.

1970 Living expenses increase and AHB Jr. returns to paid employment as a biology and physics teachers in Bennington Vermont, returning to the farm on weekends and summers.

1978 The area around the house is cleared with the help of a horse, a pony, and much hard work by Arthur H. Baker III (AHBIII).

1980 Grandchildren visit regularly.

1982 The land is kept in an ecologically friendly way by AHB Jr. who retires from classroom teaching. He joins ecology-focused groups such as the Marshfield Organic Gardeners Club, keeps bees and participates in Bee Keeping meetings, installs bat boxes, and is an active member of the Audubon Society. Solar heating panels are installed on the south side of the house.

1983 Forest Management Plan under Chapter 61 is established by AHB Jr. The tax relief of this plan makes it possible to maintain the property as open space. Tax increases have made it otherwise impossible to hold the land. Hundreds of evergreens, valued as Christmas trees are planted.

1993 Logging operation occurs. Logging is an important part of Chapter 61 plan. Figure 50 and 51 are taken about one year after the first harvest of forest products. The slash pile in figure 50 is unsightly, but the overall improvement to the forest is expected. Figure 51 shows AHB Jr. looking over the newly cleared area in the Back Forest. Logging today works hard to preserve a natural aesthetic. A Guide to Logging Aesthetics outline some simple procedures to improve the visual impact of logging operations. The book opens with the statement that “people like to see things that have a sense of order. Parallel lines (an even-aged stand of pruned trees), gentle curves (winding forest roads and trails), and nice symmetry (the silhouette of a well developed tree) all have appeal. People dislike disorganization (trees randomly pushed over), chaos (unlopped slash), or things that are not in balance or harmony (areas of heavy soil erosion).” It goes on to say “it sounds like a ‘touchy, feely’ sort of thing that a ‘fussy, Prissy’ landowner or a tree-hugging environmental group might try to practice. Surely no real logger or forester could be bothered by aesthetics…Or could they.” Loggers are aware that the public now places a higher value on ecological, recreational, and aesthetic land uses rather than timber production, while the American Forest Council points out that private non-industrial woodland owners control 69% of the commercial forest land, grow 67% of the region’s net annual tree growth, and produce 74% of the annual harvested timber volumes (Jones 1993).

19?? Birds are provided cover as encouraged by the Massachusetts Audubon. AHB Jr .is an active member. Autumn Olive is planted extensively and Bitter Sweet and Wild Roses are allowed to spread to provide food and cover for wildlife. See appendix viii for information on invasive plants.

1993 Organic gardening is practiced.

1996 Honey Bees are kept.

19?? Bat boxes are installed. Deer, Turkey, fox, are observed on the property

2000 Christmas trees are harvested. See figure 52.

2001 The land is released to natural habitat except for a few areas. See figures 53&54.

2002 AHB Jr. Relaxes and enjoys the woods

2003 AHB Jr. dies leaving the property to his four children.

2004 Invasive plants threaten to over run the native and historic plantings. See figure 55.

2004 Rehabilitation plans are started. Preliminary sketches are drawn. See figures 58 and appendix ix.

Rehabilitation and the Future

Bumble Bee Hill and the Baker Woods are a resource worth maintaining as an example of how ordinary people manage the land. This project has barley scratched the surface. It is a start that is intended to stimulate interest in future generations.

A plan for the future of the property will include preservation and rehabilitation treatments. It will connect family, community, past, present and future and balance economics, aesthetics, and environmental needs and interests of the land holders.

List of Ilustrations

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BBH area aerial view 1978
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BBH area aerial view 2001
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BBH area aerial view 2001 (closer)

Figure 1. The House 1890

Figure 2 The House 2003

Figure P.1 Sons of George Baker (1846-1915)

Figure P.2 The Family 2003

Figure 1a. George Martin Baker (1820-1911)

Figure 2a. Arthur Howland Baker, Water Color 1990

Figure 3 HALS Brochure 2003

Figure 4 Aerial Photo of Marshfield 2001

Figure 5 Topography

Figure 6 Boston Sky Line with Mile High Glacier

Figure 7 Glacial Erratic from the Back Woods

Figure 8 Hinckley Soil sample (http://nesoil.com/images/Hinckley.htm )

Figure 9 Esker At North East Corner Of Property 2004

Figure 10 Deerfield Soil Sample http://nesoil.com/images/Deerfield.htm

Figure 11 Native American Trails from (Russell 1980)

Figure 12 Town of Secota engraving by Theodor DeBry based on a sketch by John White

Figure 13 Land Cleared by Native Americans Pre 1600

Figure 14 Town of Secota

Figure 15 Native American Artifact Found on BBH

Figure 16 Native American Artifact Found on BBH

Figure 17 1638 Map of New England with Green(s) Harbor Marked

Figure 18 Baited Wolf Trap http://www.bnf.fr/enluminures/manuscrits/aman10/i5_0068.htm

Figure 19 Baited Pit Wolf Trap http://www.bnf.fr/enluminures/manuscrits/aman10/i5_0068.htm

Figure 20

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Dingley’s Tomb Photo

taken spring of 2004

Figure 21 1838 Map of Marshfield with Baker Property Marked (from Marshfield Library)

Figure 22 Close Up of Baker Property from 1838 Map of Marshfield

Figure 23 Period Drawing-1840s Duxbury by J.W. Barber

Figure 24 Speculative Drawing by Fran Peterson of GMB Farm c.1850

Figure 25 Picture showing various styles of architecture on buildings

Figure 26 Map of Marshfield 1860s

Figure 27 GMB Property Close up from 1860 map

Figure 28 George Martin Baker Photo

Figure 28a George Martin Baker with Cow on Bumble Bee Hill

Figure 29 Second Marshfield Fair Clipping

Figure 30 First Annual Report of the Marshfield Agricultural and Horticultural Society Cover Page

Figure 31 First Page of the 1871 Authorization for the Improvement of the Green Harbor Marsh

Figure 32 Marshfield Meadows an 1878 oil painting by Martin Johnson Heade

Figure 33 1885 Map of Coast

Figure 34 Close up of 1885 Map of Coast

Figure 35 1903 Town Map of Marshfield

Figure 36 Close up of 1903 Town Map of Marshfield

Figure 37 Arthur Howland Baker Sr. Family 1920s

Figure 38 Farmers Life Excerpt

Figure 39 4x6 Drawing of House

Figure 40 1942 Cartoon

Figure 41 Baby Rabbits

Figure 42 Silent Spring

Figure 43 Rachel Carson

Figure 44 BBH Fence and View Beyond

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2004 Plan
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2004 Plan with color

Figure 45 1953 Map Development Plans

Figure 46 1973 Map

Figure 47 1978 Aerial Photo of Bumble Bee Hill

Figure 48 Vegetation Regions of Forest Management Plan

Figure 49 Vegetation Regions in Color

Figure 50 Slash Pile 1993

Figure 51 Forest after 1993 Harvest

Figure 52 Christmas Tree Harvest 2000

Figure 53 2001 aerial photo

Figure 54 close up of the aerial photo

Figure 55 Bitter Sweet

Figure 56 Lavender Mist by Jackson Polock

Figure 57 Foundation Stones

Figure 58 2004 Plan

Figure 59 2004 Plan with Color

Bibliography and References

  1. Allport, Susan. Sermons in Stone: The Stone Walls of New England and New York. W.W. Norton& Company New York, 1990.
  2. Barron, Hal S. Those Who Stayed Behind: Rural Society in Nineteenth-Century New England. Cambridge University Press. New York, 1984.
  3. Beals, Donna L., Project Director. Marshfield Community History: As Told Through the Lives of It’s People, Past and Present. Dallas: Curtis Media Corporation, 1993.
  4. Benjamin, Philip B. Forest Management Plan. March 2003.
  5. Birnbaum, Charles A. Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resources. Washington 1994.
  6. Bradford, William. Bradford’s History “Of Plimoth Plantation” From the Original Manuscript Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co. 1901
  7. Clark, William F., and Roberta A. Clark. Planting and Maintaining Sustainable Landscapes: A Guide for Public Officials and the Green Industry. University of Massachusetts Extension.
  8. Creasy, Rosalind. The Edible Heirloom Garden. Periplus Editions (HK) LTD. Singapore. 1999.
  9. Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang, 2003.
  10. Doane, Doris. A Book of Cape Cod Houses. Old Greenwich, Connecticut: The Chatham Press, 1970.
  11. Foster, David R. and John F. O’Keefe, New England Forests Though Time: Insights from the Harvard Forest Dioramas. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000.
  12. Goetcheus, Cari. An Overview of HALS. A presentation sponsored by The Landscape Institute, Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University December 4, 2003
  13. Greenberg, Robert. Lecture 19 on Charles Ives. The Teaching Company VA 2004.
  14. Hanna, Karen C., and Culpepper, Brian R. GIS in Site Design: Tools for Design Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1989.
  15. Harrell, Pauline Chase and Charlotte Moulton Chase,. Arrowhead Farm: Three Hundred Years of New England Husbandry and Cooking. Woodstock, Vermont: The Countryman Press, 1983.
  16. Husband, Robert W. Flight of the Bumblebee (An electronic reprint of Entomology Notes #10, copyright Michigan Entomological Society) Michigan Entomological Society, c/o Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824--(15-V-77) http://insects.ummz.lsa.umich.edu/mes/notes/entnote10.html.
  17. Jones, Geoffrey T. A Guide to Logging Aesthetics: Practical Tips for Loggers, Foresters, and Landowners. Ithaca, New York: National Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service. 1993
  18. Mann, William A. Landscape Architecture: An Illustrated History in Timelines, Site Plans and Biography. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1993.
  19. Marsh, George Perkins. Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Edited by David Lowenthal Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.
  20. Messervy, Julie. The Inward Garden: Creating Places of Beauty and Meaning. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1995
  21. Mitchell, John Hanson. Ceremonial Time: Fifteen Thousand Years on One Square Mile. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Perseus Books, 1997
  22. NARA's Northeast Region (The National Archives and Records Administration) 380 Trapelo Road, Waltham, MA 02452-6399
  23. Richards, Lysander Salmon History of Marshfield, Vol. I (Plymouth: The Memorial Press, 1901; repr. Salem: Higginson Books, 1996).
  24. Russell, Howard S. Indian New England Before the Mayflower. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1980
  25. Sandrof, Ivan. Massachusetts Towns: An 1840 View drawn by J.W. Barber. Barre, Massachusetts: Barre Publishers, 1963.
  26. Stein, Gertrude. Picasso. Dover Publication, Inc 1984 NY (Original London 1938)
  27. Stein, Sara. Noah’s Garden: Restoring the Ecology of Our Own Back Yards. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993.
  28. Stoll, Steven. Larding the Lean Earth: Soil and Society in Nineteenth-Century America. New York Hill and Wang. 2002.
  29. Taylor, Richard Painting by Numbers - research shows Jackson Pollock's paintings have fractals - Brief Article Discover, Sept, 1999
  30. Thoreau, Henry David. Wild Fruits. Edited by Bradley P. Dean. New York: W.W. Norton & Conpany, 2000.
  31. Virga, Vincent and the Curators of the Library of Congress Eyes of the Nation: A visual History of the United States. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1997
  32. Watercolor drawing "Indian Village of Secoton" by John White (created 1585-1586). Licensed by the Trustees of the British Museum. ©Copyright the British Museum. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/debry35.html
  33. Wood, William. New England’s Prospect. Edited by Alden T. Vaughan. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1977.

Places

  1. NARA's Northeast Region (The National Archives and Records Administration) 380 Trapelo Road. Waltham, MA 02452-6399
  2. Ventress Memorial Library, History Room. 15 Library Plaza,. Marshfield, MA 02050-4998
  3. Cedar Grove Cemetery in Marshfield MA

People

Benjamin,Phillip, Forester

Dickey, Bradford, Friend and neighbor for over 50 year.

Family members

Igleheart, Elizabeth Landscape historian

Langenbach, Larry, antique appraiser

Piette, Linda, Culinary Historian

Stewart, Pearson H., Family Elder and Keeper of Baker Family Records.

Stohlman, Thomas, Architect

Appendices

i. Forest Management Plan

ii. Family Tree

iii. History Sketch by George Martin Baker

iv. Tributes to George Martin Baker

v. Obituary of Arthur Howland Baker Jr.

vi. Story of the Old Pine

vii. Summary Chart

viii. Invasive Plants

ix. Preliminary Plan Drawings of the House

x. Landscape Drawings by Fran Baker Peterson

Miscellaneous

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